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Authors: Norman Lewis

Tomb in Seville

The Tomb in Seville
Crossing Spain on the Brink of Civil War
Norman Lewis


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Chapter 19


A Biography of Norman Lewis


, although Sicilian by birth, was obsessively concerned with all matters pertaining to Spain. His family originally came from there, which was evident from their name, and there was said to be evidence to prove that an ancestor had been included in the suite of the viceroy Caracciolo, sent from Spain to Sicily following its conquest.

In his London house Ernesto still nourished the ghost of a Spanish environment with a housekeeper recruited from some sad Andalusian village who glided silently from room to room wearing a skirt reaching to her ankles, and kept the house saturated with the odour of frying saffron. Despite Ernesto’s agnosticism, a Spanish priest in exile was called in to bless the table on the days of religious feasts, and although Ernesto’s son Eugene resisted his father’s efforts to send him to Spain to complete his studies, his daughter, Ernestina, briefly to be my wife, had agreed to spend a year in a college in Seville.

Visits to Spain had taken on the nature of quasi-religious pilgrimages in this household, and Eugene’s resistance was finally overcome by his father’s offer to pay the expenses both of my brother-in-law and myself for a visit of two months to Seville. Here we could inspect the remains of the old so-called Corvaja Palace, pay our respects at the family tomb in the cathedral, and discover if any memory, however faint, had survived of the Corvajas in the ancient capital of Andalusia.

Our Spanish travels, it was decided, would begin at San Sebastián, just across the country’s north-western frontier with France, thereafter following a slightly more circuitous approach to Seville, through the less developed and, to us, more interesting areas, including in the west, for example, the towns of Salamanca and Valladolid.

On Sunday 23 September 1934 we attempted to book seats on the train for San Sebastián, only to be told at the London ticket office that bookings could be made only as far as Irun on the French frontier with Spain. Here a temporary interruption of the traffic was expected to be rectified next day.

At Irun some twenty hours later, we found the frontier closed and the air buzzing with rumours; several Spanish passengers showed signs of alarm. Nevertheless those with tickets for Salamanca were given accommodation in a small but excellent local hotel, and a guide was provided to show us round a somewhat unexciting town. In the morning, entry into Spain had been restored and we boarded a train which carried us through to San Sebastián in just over a half-hour.

In a way the hold-up at the frontier had been interesting for us, providing an instant and striking demonstration of the contrasts in style and character of the two peoples involved. Irun was full of alert and energetic Frenchmen and women who made no concession to the southern climate, rose early to plunge into their daily tasks, ate and drank sparingly at midday and in the early evening, foregathered socially thereafter for an hour or two before retiring to a splendid coffee-scented bar. This, we were to discover, was the diametric opposite of the Spanish way of life. The French lived in a kind of nervous activity. They hastened from one engagement to another with an eye kept on their enormous clocks.

To arrive in San Sebastián, a few miles across the frontier, was to be plunged into a different world. This was a town of white walls guarding the privacy of its citizens, all such surfaces being covered with huge political graffiti. No one was in a hurry, or carried a parcel, and here there were no clocks. Irun’s restaurants filled for the midday meal at 12.30 p.m. and emptied one hour later, when their patrons returned to their offices or shops. Those of San Sebastián admitted their first customers at 2 p.m., and these would have spent an absolute minimum of an hour and a half over the meal before vacating their tables. The majority then returned home for a siesta of an hour or so before tackling their afternoon’s work.

‘How long do you suppose we’ll be staying?’ Eugene asked.

‘Well, two or three days, I’d say. What do you think? It’s more interesting than I expected. I was talking to the chap who does the rooms. San Sebastián is famous for its
apparently. You know what a

‘Well, more or less.’

‘Most old-fashioned towns have one. Here they have two—a popular version for the working class in the early evening and a select one, as they call it, for the better people later on. I read somewhere they haven’t scrapped the

‘The what?’

The habit of shouting sexually offensive remarks at good-looking women in the
or even in the street. The dictator Primo de Rivera put a stop to it, but it’s crept back into favour again in places like this.’

‘Right then,’ said Eugene, ‘let’s make it three days.’

The Royalty Hotel seemed to reflect the old style of life, and was full of what Eugene described as bowing and scraping.

‘What comes after this?’ he wanted to know.

‘Well, Burgos I suppose. Nice comfortable distance. About seventy or eighty miles. With a good car we could do it in the morning, or carry on to Valladolid which sounds more interesting. Pity nothing’s said about the state of the roads.’

‘They’ll be able to tell us at the hotel, I’m sure.’

The four-course dinner took us by surprise, but we did our best with the huge portions. Eugene went off to give Ernesto a surprise phone call, but came back shaking his head. ‘No lines through to England at the moment,’ he said. The people in the hotel all seemed surprised.

Later that day Eugene received a surprise request from the woman who had waited on us at table, and had received our compliments in the matters of service and food with obvious pleasure. Her request was that one or the other of us would escort her in the first
that evening. Such was the prestige in San Sebastián, she explained, of foreign visitors from the north, that to appear in public with one infallibly enhanced a local girl’s status. Dorotea was both pretty and exceedingly charming, so her request was immediately granted. Eugene provided a splendid bouquet and we then spent the hour and a half of the
strolling girl in arm in the company of several hundred local citizens in the formal gardens by the sea.

was accepted as health-giving, rejuvenating exercise. More importantly, for the traveller out of his depth in foreign surroundings and reduced to constant apology and confusion imposed by the loss of language, it was a godsend. Whether merchant, soldier or minister of religion, the
smoothed out all the problems. The mere act of walking in the company of beaming strangers provoked a change of mood. Within minutes of joining a
ranks the beginner had shaken hands with everyone in sight—a cordial gripping of fists sometimes strong enough to produce a moistening of the eyes. The leaflet we collected as new members of the ‘friendly walk’ advised us that one should ‘always smile, but laugh with caution’. A number of actions came under its ban: ‘At all times refrain from shouting or whistling. Gestures with the fingers are to be avoided. Do not wink, do not turn your back on a bore in an ostentatious manner, and, above all, never spit.’

From Eugene’s viewpoint the experience turned out to be so attractive that he was a little sad when it was at an end. We were to learn next day that even the hotel approved of this adventure on the part of a member of the staff. ‘The manager complimented me,’ Dorotea said. ‘They hope to be able to give me an increase in salary next spring.’

Eugene tried to ring home again, but all international lines were still engaged. The manager seemed to find this as baffling as we did. Purely for a change of scene we hired a car and set off to drive a mile or two along the coast road to France. We didn’t get very far before we were stopped by two Civil Guards who had left their car to stretch white tape across the road. They were typical of their kind, grey of jowl and verging on middle age. These must have been the last survivors in San Sebastián of the old-fashioned military police. Otherwise the municipality had already been able to import several of the smart new Assault Guards. It was made clear to us that the road back to France was closed.

‘Why so many coppers?’ I wondered aloud to Eugene. ‘Surely not another revolution on the way?’

‘You never know,’ he said. ‘After all this
Spain. Anyway, what’ll we do tonight?’

I told him I’d spotted a cabaret at the end of the main street. ‘Probably be a bit of a fake, but it’ll use up some time,’ I said.

We had dinner at the hotel, where Dorotea was full of smiles, and after that we made for the cabaret which, said a notice scrawled in chalk on the door, was shut for that evening, ‘owing to circumstances’. What on earth, we wondered, did they mean by that? You can’t get through on the telephone to a foreign country, the road to France is closed, and now the cabaret’s decided to pack up for the night. Just what
happening? I wondered. ‘Do you think perhaps we shouldn’t have come here after all?’

When we returned to the hotel we found one of the grey, old Civil Guards at the reception desk. He asked us to note down our occupations, our religion, our reason for coming to Spain and how long we proposed to stay. We were finally instructed to present ourselves at nine the next morning at the barracks of the Civil Guard in order for photographs to be taken.

‘I must admit,’ said the hotel manager, ‘that this has been an experience a foreign guest is bound to find alarming. However an explanation from the police is bound to be forthcoming, and I am sure that the rest of your stay with us will be trouble-free in every way.’

We agreed, not least because San Sebastián appeared to us as a town well adjusted to the calmer routine of urban life. That evening Dorotea and a friend joined us on the fashionable
Parting company with them at about ten, we were delighted to discover that the cabaret had opened after all, and so spent an hour there listening to
cante flamenco
before going to bed.

Next morning, Friday 28 September, an official State of Alarm was declared throughout Spain. The announcement, broadcast on the radio at 6 a.m., and subsequently repeated at half-hour intervals, warned the population of the curtailment of certain civil liberties, the imposition of a curfew at 9 p.m., and of restrictions upon travel. Further local information would be made available at all
After a brief discussion, Eugene and I agreed that our best hope would be to pay our bills and get down to the station as soon as we could in the hope of seats on the morning train to the south. But when we got there we found that the Civil Guards we had seen on the previous day had used their car to close off the entrance to the station. They told us that not only would there be no train to Seville, but that no train at all would be leaving for any destination in the country on this day.

Turning back to make for the centre, we were suddenly both to experience a sensation that the personality of this town had undergone a remarkable change. The people of San Sebastián, as we had agreed, seemed to set great store by matters of personal deportment. They held themselves erect, walked in a dignified manner and with no evidence of haste. This we attributed to some extent to a climate with summer temperatures that could be high. But it was also probably based upon remnants of a cultural inheritance from the Moors. At this moment San Sebastián seemed full of running figures and queues had formed at the doors of food shops with desperate would-be customers struggling to get in. Such was the confusion that even the
were abandoned.

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