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Authors: Jennifer Sandra.,Brown Walklate

Handbook on Sexual Violence


Sexual Violence

Edited by

Jennifer M. Brown

Sandra L. Walklate

Handbook on Sexual Violence

This book contextualises the complexity of sexual violence within its broader context – from war to the resolution of interpersonal disputes – and covers a wide span including sexual harassment, bullying, rape and murder as well as domestic violence. Written by leading academics from a variety of disciplines, contributions also include commentaries that relate the research to the work of practitioners.

Despite advances made in the investigation of sexual offences, evidence still points to a continued belief in the culpability of victims in their own victimisation and a gap between the estimated incidence of sexual violence and the conviction of perpetrators. Adopting an implicitly and explicitly critical stance to contemporary policy responses that continue to fail in addressing this problem, this book focuses on attitudes and behaviour towards sexual violence from the point of view of the individual experiencing the violence – perpetrator and victim – and situates them within a broader societal frame. It is through an understanding of social processes and psychological mechanisms that underpin sexual violence that violence can be combated and harm reduced, and at this individual level that evidence-based interventions can be designed to change policy and practice.

The Handbook is split into four sections:

  1. Legacies: Setting the Scene
    offers a critical overview of historical, legal and cultural processes which help to explain the origins of current thinking and offer steers for future developments.

  2. Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Violence
    examines contemporary thinking on sexual

    violence and reviews explanatory frameworks from a number of perspectives.

  3. Acts of Sexual Violence
    reviews a number of specific types of sexual violence, elaborating the range of circumstances, victims and perpetrators with a view to addressing the general and pervasive nature of such violence, thus contradicting narrow cultural stereotyping.

  4. Responding to Sexual Violence
    overviews and evaluates current policies and practices

and offers new ideas to develop different types of interventions.

The editors’ conclusion not only draws out the key themes and ideas from contributions to the Handbook, but also considers the nature and the extent of the progress which has been made in understanding and responding to sexual violence.

This will be a key text for students and academics studying sexual violence and an essential reference tool for professionals working in the field including police officers, probation staff, lawyers and judges.

Jennifer M. Brown
is the Deputy Director of the Mannheim Centre for Criminology at the London School of Economics. She previously co-edited
Rape: challenging contemporary thinking
with Miranda Horvath and the
Handbook of Forensic Psychology
with Elizabeth Campbell.

Sandra L. Walklate
holds the Eleanor Rathbone Chair of Sociology at the University

of Liverpool. She has written numerous books including
Criminology: the basics
Understanding Criminology: current theoretical debates
Imagining the Victim of Crime

Handbook on Sexual Violence

Edited by

Jennifer M. Brown and Sandra L. Walklate

First published 2012 by Routledge

2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

by Routledge

711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

2012 Jennifer M. Brown and Sandra L. Walklate; individual chapters, the contributors

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice
: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Handbook on sexual violence / edited by Jennifer M. Brown and Sandra L. Walklate.

  1. cm.

    1. Sex crimes. 2. Sexual abuse victims. 3. Women–Violence against. I. Brown, Jennifer, 1948- II. Walklate, Sandra.

HV6556.H38 2012 364.15’3–dc22


ISBN: 978-0-415-67071-5 (hbk)

ISBN: 978-0-415-67072-2 (pbk)

ISBN: 978-0-203-80243-4 (ebk)

Typeset in Palatino by PDQ Typesetting Ltd

To Amanda Hart of Counsel

Carla Machado: an inspiration to all who knew her and to the inspirational life and work of Corinna Seith


List of figures and tables xi

Abbrevations xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Preface by Liz Kelly xvii

Introduction 1

Jennifer Brown and Sandra Walklate

Part One: Legacies: Setting the Scene 13

Introduction 15

Jennifer Brown and Sandra Walklate

  1. Sexual violence in history: a contemporary heritage? 23

    Shani D’Cruze

  2. Sexual violence in literature: a cultural heritage? 52

    Liam Murray Bell, Amanda Finelli and Marion Wynne-Davies

  3. The legal heritage of the crime of rape 69

    Joan McGregor

  4. Developing measures of multiple forms of sexual violence

    and their contested treatment in the criminal justice system 90

    Sylvia Walby, Jo Armstrong and Sofia Strid

  5. Developments in investigative approaches to rape: the

    investigative heritage 114

    Miranda A.H. Horvath and Mark Yexley

  6. Practitioner commentary: a police perspective 137

    Sharon Stratton

    Part Two: Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Violence 147

    Introduction 149

    Sandra Walklate and Jennifer Brown

  7. Psychological perspectives on sexual violence: generating

    a general theory 156

    Jennifer Brown

  8. On sociological perspectives 181

    Helen Jones

  9. Family violence and family safety: working therapeutically

    with victims, perpetrators, survivors and their families

    Arlene Vetere

  10. Violence and prostitution: beyond the notion of a ‘continuum

    of sexual violence’ 218

    Jo Phoenix

  11. Practitioner commentary: treating the perpetrators of sexual

    violence – an applied response 237

    Ruth E. Mann

    Part Three: Acts of Sexual Violence 245

    Introduction 247

    Sandra Walklate and Jennifer Brown

  12. Silencing rape, silencing women 253

    Jan Jordan

  13. Co-ordinating responses to domestic violence 287

    Nicole Westmarland

  14. Destroying women: sexual murder and feminism 308

    Anette Ballinger

  15. Violence, sex and the child 331

    Stephanie Petrie

  16. Under their parents’ noses – the online sexual solicitation of

    young people 353

    David Shannon

  17. Practitioner commentary: working with sexual violence 374

    Stephanie Kewley

    Part Four: Responding to Sexual Violence 383

    Introduction 385

    Jennifer Brown and Sandra Walklate

  18. Bullying, harassment and sexual orientation in the workplace 394

    Helge Hoel and Duncan Lewis

  19. Public sector and voluntary sector responses: supporting survivors 417

    Kate Cook


  20. Public sector and voluntary sector responses: dealing with sex

    offenders 436

    Hazel Kemshall

  21. Changing the community response to rape: the promise of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programmes 458

    Rebecca Campbell

  22. Practitioner commentary: response from South Essex Rape and Incest Crisis Centres (SERICC) Home Office Women’s

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