Gilgamesh Immortal (Chronicles of the Nephilim) (35 page)

 

[1]
Jeffrey H. Tigay,
The Epic of Gilgamesh
, Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 1982, 2002.

[2]
Tzvi Abusch, “The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay,
Journal of the American Oriental Society
, Vol. 121, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2001), pp. 614-622.

[3]
The three I found most helpful in studying the epic were
A.R. George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts
, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 2003; Benjamin Foster, transl. ed.,
The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Norton Critical Edition
, New York: W.W. Norton, 2001; and the Maureen Gallery Kovacs Translation at http://king-of-heroes.co.uk/the-epic-of-gilgamesh/maureen-gallery-kovacs-translation/

[4]
The Ancient Near East an Anthology of Texts and Pictures.
, ed. James Bennett Pritchard, 92-93 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958).

[5]
The Ancient Near East an Anthology of Texts and Pictures.
, ed. James Bennett Pritchard, 92-93 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958).

[6]
A.R. George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts
, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 697.

[7]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 697.

[8]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 697.

[9]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 697.

[10]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 697.

[11]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 697.

[12]
v. 130-133, Benjamin R. Foster, Ed.,
The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Norton Critical Edition
, New York: Norton and Company, 2001, p. 109.

[13]
The Ancient Near East an Anthology of Texts and Pictures.
, ed. James Bennett Pritchard, 90 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958).

[14]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 543-544.

[15]
Tablets I and II,
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 549-561.

[16]
Tablet I: 202, 207,
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 551

[17]
James Charlesworth,
The Good and Evil Serpent: How a Universal Symbol Became Christianized
, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 309.

[18]
Charlesworth,
The Good and Evil Serpent
, p. 419.

[19]
Charlesworth,
The Good and Evil Serpent
, p. 100.

[20]
See the appendix “The Nephilim” in
Noah Primeval
for the explanation of the expulsion of the giant clans from the Holy Land. They are essentially the Seed of the Serpent at war with the Seed of Eve. Brian Godawa,
Noah Primeval
, Los Angeles, CA: Embedded Pictures Publishing, 2012, pp. 307-326.

[21]
Brian Godawa, “Biblical Creation and Storytelling: Cosmogony, Combat and Covenant,”
http://godawa.com/Writing/Articles/BiblicalCreationStorytelling-Godawa.pdf.

[22]
Bruce R. Reichenbach, “Genesis 1 as a Theological-Political Narrative of Kingdom Establishment,”
Bulletin for Biblical Research
13.1 (2003), pp. 47-69. See also, John Sailhamer,
Genesis Unbound: A Provocative New Look at the Creation Account
(Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 1996).

[23]
Tablet XI:302-307,
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 723.

[24]
Tigay,
The Epic of Gilgamesh
, pp. 214-240.

[25]
See Umberto Cassuto,
The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch,
Skokie, IL: Varda Books, 1941, 2005; Duane A. Garrett,
Rethinking Genesis: The Sources and Authorship of the First Book of the Pentateuch
, Baker, 1991; John H. Sailhamer,
The Meaning of the Pentateuch: Revelation, Composition and Interpretation,
Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity, 2009; “The New Literary Criticism,” Gordon J. Wenham, Vol. 1,
Genesis 1–15
. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998, pp. xxxii-xlii; Victor P. Hamilton
, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 1–17
. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990, pp. 12-38.

[26]
Gordon J. Wenham, “
The Coherence of the Flood Narrative,”
Vetus Testamentum
28, no. 3 (1978), p. 338.

[27]
Bill T. Arnold and David B. Weisberg, “A Centennial Review of Friedrich Delitzsch's ‘Babel und Bibel’ Lectures,”
Journal of Biblical Literature
, Vol. 121, No. 3 (Autumn, 2002), pp. 441-457.

[28]
P. J. Wiseman, D. J. Wiseman, Ed.,
Ancient Records and the Structure of Genesis: A Case for Literary Unity
Thomas Nelson, 1985.

[29]
One of the major premises of
Chronicles of the Nephilim
is that pagans replace the narrative of the Biblical God with their own mythical constructs that justify their prejudices and protect their consciences from moral repentance. Their accusations that Biblical religion is a fairy tale concocted to control others is a projection of their own hubris to control others by negating transcendent authority
.

[30]
Wenham, “
The Coherence of the Flood Narrative,” p. 346.

[31]
Alexander Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels
, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1946, 1963, p. 227.

[32]
Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 228.

[33]
Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 230-232.

[34]
Bernard Batto points out this distinction that is often missed by scholars. The noise and din “
indicate the cries of rebellion of humankind against the authority of the deity. In the prior revolt by the lesser gods Enlil's sleep was also interrupted by a similar outcry from the rebel gods. The humans are thus portrayed as carrying on in the spirit of the slain rebel god out of whose flesh and blood they were created.” Bernard Batto, “The Sleeping God: An Ancient Near Eastern Motif of Divine Sovereignty,”
Biblica
68 (1987), p. 160.

[35]
Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 232-236.

[36]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 518.

[37]
Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 255.

[38]
George,
The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic
, pp. 518.

[39]
Stephanie Dalley, trans.,
Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh and Others
. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, 2000, 2008, p 154-162. The Sumerian version can be found in Jeremy Black, trans.,
The Literature of Ancient Sumer
. New York: Oxford university Press, p 65-76.

[40]
Alexander Heidel, trans.,
The Babylonian Genesis
. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago, 1942, 1951, 1963; 14.

[41]
C. Jouco Bleeker and Geo Widengren, eds.,
Historia Religium I: Religions of the Past
. Netherlands; E.J. Brill, 1969; p 134. Richard J. Clifford.
Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible
, Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 26. Washington D.C.: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994; p 7-8.

[42]
“Baalzebub,”
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised
. (
ISBE
) Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1988.

[43]
“Jezebel,”
ISBE.

[44]
Heidel,
The Gilgamesh Epic
, p. 268.

[45]
John Sietze Bergsma, Scott Walker Hahn, “Noah’s Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20–27)”,
Journal of Biblical Literature
124 (2005): 25, ed. Gail R. O'Day, 25 (Decatur, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005)..

[46]
Journal of Biblical Literature
124 (2005): 33, ed. Gail R. O'Day, 33 (Decatur, GA: Society
of
Biblical Literature, 2005).

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