Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (63 page)

18
.  Gazzaniga,
Who’s in Charge?
, ch. 3.

19
.  Jorge Luis Borges,
Collected Fictions
, trans. Andrew Hurley (New York: Penguin Books, 1999), 308–9. For a Spanish version see: Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Un problema’, in
Obras completas
, vol. 3 (Buenos Aires: Emece Editores, 1968–9), 29–30.

20
.  Mark Thompson,
The White War
:
Life and Death on the Italian Front,
1915–1919 (New York: Basic Books, 2009).

9
The Great Decoupling

1
.   F. M. Anderson (ed.),
The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:
1789–1907, 2nd edn (Minneapolis: H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184–5; Alan Forrest, ‘L’armée de l’an II: la levée en masse et la création d’un mythe républicain’,
Annales historiques de la Révolution française
335 (2004), 111–30.

2
.
   Morris Edmund Spears (ed.),
World War Issues and Ideals: Readings in Contemporary History and Literature
(Boston and New York: Ginn and Company, 1918), 242. The most significant recent study, widely quoted by both proponents and opponents, attempts to prove that soldiers of democracy fight better: Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,
Democracies at War
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

3
.   Doris Stevens,
Jailed for Freedom
(New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290. See also Susan R. Grayzel,
Women and the First World War
(Harlow: Longman, 2002), 101–6; Christine Bolt,
The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the
1790
s to the
1920
s
(Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236–76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, ‘Women’s Suffrage and War: World War I and Political Reform in a Comparative Perspective’, in
Suffrage, Gender and Citizenship: International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms
, ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193–218.

4
.   Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run into Problem: Cars with Drivers’,
New York Times
, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,
Digital Destiny: How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Communicate
(Washington DC: Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127–56.

5
.   Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over “Unfair Advantage” for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’,
Wall Street Journal
, 29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-over-unfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’,
Huffington Post
, 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-trading-lawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-23/fake-report-erasing-136-billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost: High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’,
Bloomberg Businessweek
, 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468-how-the-robots-lost-high-frequency-tradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,
Automate This
, 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl,
The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More
(London: Penguin, 2014), 223.

6
.   Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer: What Happens when Computers Replace Attorneys?’,
Atlantic
, 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-when-computers-replace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’,
New York Times
, 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan: A Better Lie Detector?’,
Time
, 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546-2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’,
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
7:54 (2013); Steiner,
Automate This
, 217; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 229.

7
.   B. P. Woolf,
Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors: Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning
(Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, ‘The Machines are Taking Over’,
New York Times
, 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teach-humans.html?_r=0; P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, ‘Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Computer e-Learning System and Comparison With Human Teachers’,
IEEE Transactions on Education
54:1 (2011), 164–7; Mindojo, accessed 14 July 2015, http://mindojo.com/.

8
.   Steiner,
Automate This
, 146–62; Ian Steadman, ‘IBM’s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctors’,
Wired
, 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-02/11/ibm-watson-medical-doctor; ‘Watson Is Helping Doctors Fight Cancer’, IBM, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson_in_healthcare.shtml; Vinod Khosla, ‘Technology Will Replace 80 per cent of What Doctors Do’,
Fortune
, 4 December 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctors-khosla; Ezra Klein, ‘How Robots Will Replace Doctors’,
Washington Post
, 10 January 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-will-replace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

9
.   Tzezana,
The Guide to the Future
, 62–4.

10
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 155.

11
.  http://www.mattersight.com.

12
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 178–82; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 21–4; Shana Lebowitz, ‘Every Time You Dial into These Call Centers, Your Personality Is Being Silently Assessed’,
Business Insider
, 3 September 2015, retrieved 31 January 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mattersight-uses-personality-science-2015-9.

13
.  Rebecca Morelle, ‘Google Machine Learns to Master Video Games’, BBC, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31623427; Elizabeth Lopatto, ‘Google’s AI Can Learn to Play Video Games’,
The Verge
, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/2/25/8108399/google-ai-deepmind-video-games; Volodymyr Mnih et al., ‘Human-Level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning’,
Nature
, 26 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14236.html.

14
.  Michael Lewis,
Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
(New York: W. W. Norton, 2003). Also see the 2011 film
Moneyball
, directed by Bennett Miller and starring Brad Pitt as Billy Beane.

15
.  Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,
The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,
The Formula
, 225–6.

16
.  Tom Simonite, ‘When Your Boss is an Uber Algorithm’,
MIT Technology Review
, 1 December 2015, retrieved 4 February 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/543946/when-your-boss-is-an-uber-algorithm/.

17
.  Simon Sharwood, ‘Software “Appointed to Board” of Venture Capital Firm’,
The Register
, 18 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/18/software_appointed_to_board_of_venture_capital_firm/; John Bates, ‘I’m the Chairman of the Board’,
Huffington Post
, 6 April 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-bates/im-the-chairman-of-the-bo_b_5440591.html; Colm Gorey, ‘I’m Afraid I Can’t Invest in That, Dave: AI Appointed to VC Funding Board’,
Silicon Republic
, 15 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, https://www.siliconrepublic.com/discovery/2014/05/15/im-afraid-i-cant-invest-in-that-dave-ai-appointed-to-vc-funding-board.

18
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 89–101; D. H. Cope,
Comes the Fiery Night: 2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine
(Santa Cruz: Create Space, 2011). See also: Dormehl,
The Formula
, 174–80, 195–8, 200–2, 216–20; Steiner,
Automate This
, 75–89.

19
.  Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?’, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf.

20
.  E. Brynjolfsson and A. McAffee,
Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy
(Lexington: Digital Frontier Press, 2011).

21
.  Nick Bostrom,
Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

22
.  Ido Efrati, ‘Researchers Conducted a Successful Experiment with an “Artificial Pancreas” Connected to an iPhone’ [in Hebrew],
Haaretz
, 17 June 2014, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/health/1.2350956. Moshe Phillip et al., ‘Nocturnal Glucose Control with an Artificial Pancreas at a Diabetes Camp’,
New England Journal of Medicine
368:9 (2013), 824–33; ‘Artificial Pancreas Controlled by iPhone Shows Promise in Diabetes Trial’,
Today
, 17 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.todayonline.com/world/artificial-pancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promise-diabetes-trial?singlepage=true.

23
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 7–16.

24
.  Martha Mendoza, ‘Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitor’, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, ‘Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugar’,
New York Times
, 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-google-to-develop-contact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, ‘Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tears’, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.healthline.com/health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contact-lens-012314.

25
.  Quantified Self, http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 11–16.

26
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 91–5; Bedpost, http://bedposted.com.

27
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 53–9.

Other books

Murder in Little Egypt by Darcy O'Brien
Red & Her Big Bad Dom by Sydney St. Claire
Love's Paradise by Celeste O. Norfleet
The Silver Kiss by Annette Curtis Klause
Black Ice by Lorene Cary
Tamarind Mem by Anita Rau Badami
BacktoLife by Emma Hillman
Clarkesworld Anthology 2012 by Wyrm Publishing
The Bride of Larkspear by Sherry Thomas


readsbookonline.com Copyright 2016 - 2020