. Apparently a reference to the practice of chaining a prisoner to his guard, with the guard having his left hand bound to the prisoner's right.
. From his speech
. Publilius Syrus lived in Rome in the first century
and wrote mimes, from which a selection of maxims has survived.
. This Pompey seems to be the consul of
14, and related to the Julian dynasty: hence his relationship with the emperor Gaius.
. Prefect of the praetorian guard under Tiberius and executed in
. The last king of Lydia (
. King of Numidia, captured and executed by the Romans in 104
. A fourth-century
Cyrenaic philosopher, known as the âAtheist'. The tyrant referred to was Lysimachus, king of Thrace.
. We know nothing about him apart from this anecdote.
. A sixth-century
tyrant of Acragas, notorious for his cruelty.
. A very distinguished philosopher from Ephesus (flourished
. Consul in 105
and, after conviction on a dubious charge of extortion, exiled to Smyrna.
. Hercules cremated himself in unendurable agony from the shirt of Nessus.
. Regulus was captured by the Carthaginians in 255
and subsequently tortured to death by them for refusing to co-operate in negotiating with Rome.
. Probably the elder Cato (the âCensor': 234â149
), a man of legendary strictness and moral austerity.
. Scipio Africanus Maior (236â184/3
), the conqueror of Hannibal in the war against Carthage.
. He lived 76
4, and was a notable politician, poet and historian, as well as an orator.
. A great Athenian law-giver and poet, and chief archon in 594/3
. Head of the Platonic Academy in the mid third century
. Certain identification is difficult, but the quotation might fit Alcaeus or Anacreon. The Plato reference is to
245a, and the Aristotle reference is to the pseudo-Aristotelian
ON THE SHORTNESS OF LIFE
. Paulinus is not certainly identifiable, but it appears from sections 18 and 19 that his job was
, overseeing the importing and distribution of corn. He may also have been connected to Seneca through Seneca's wife Paulina.
. Hippocrates, who lived around the second half of the fifth century
. Seneca seems to be confusing Aristotle with his pupil and successor Theophrastus, to whom Cicero attributes this thought (
. The quotation has not been identified.
. Seneca gives a run-down of Augustus' struggles to establish himself in power and consolidate his empire, from the time of the Civil War (âfellow-countrymen') to the settlement of the Alpine area (8
). The dates of the conspiracies were: Lepidus 30
, Murena and Caepio 23
, Egnatius 19
. Julia, notorious for her licentious conduct. Among her adulterous relationships was that with Iullus Antonius (son of the triumvir), which led in 2
to her banishment and his suicide. Hence Seneca's comparison (âa second formidable womanâ¦') with Cleopatra and the elder Antony, whom Augustus had to deal with in 31
. Cicero's brother-in-law, to whom he addressed a great many of his letters.
. Tribune in 91
: he proposed some revolutionary measures which provoked fierce opposition and led to his assassination.
. Papirius Fabianus taught Seneca himself and was much admired by him (Letter 100).
. Gaius Duilius, consul in 260
, defeated the Carthaginian fleet in the same year and celebrated the first naval triumph.
. Appius Claudius Caudex, consul in 264
. As consul in 263
he captured Messana in Sicily from the Carthaginians.
. During his praetorship in 97
. Bocchus was king of Mauretania.
. This was the occasion of the opening of Pompey's theatre (the first stone theatre in Rome) in 55
. The âsomebody reporting which Roman generalâ¦' above. Lucius Caecilius Metellus captured the Carthaginian war elephants in Sicily in 250
. The religious boundary of a city, beyond which the auspices could not be taken.
. Seneca pinpoints the characteristic features of the main philosophical creeds: Socratic argumentation; the scepticism of Carneades, head of the Platonic Academy in the mid second century
; Epicurean quietism; Stoic self-control; the extreme self-denial of the Cynics.
. Xerxes, on his expedition against the Greeks in 480
. Gaius Marius was a major military and political figure in the later second and early first centuries
: the first of his many consulships was in 107.
. Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus was traditionally appointed dictator in 458
to fight the Aequi. The second dictatorship referred to here is historically suspect.
. Scipio Africanus Maior (236â184/3
) defeated Hannibal in 202 and Antiochus, king of Syria, in 189. Seneca refers to Scipio's forbidding his bust to be set up in the temple of Jupiter and to his withdrawal into exile following political attacks on himself and his brother Lucius.
. Apparently one of the emperor Gaius' whims was to emulate Xerxes' bridging of the Hellespont (cf. n. 20) by building a bridge of boats from Baiae to Puteoli. This caused a shortage of provisions, as there were insufficient boats left to import corn.
. Tacitus (
. 1.7) mentions him holding the post of
, so the story is particularly appropriate for Paulinus.
. This was the practice with children, who were buried at night.
. The list of examples is characteristic of Seneca and other rhetorical and moralizing writers. P. Rutilius Rufus was consul in 105
and exiled in 92. Q. Metellus Numidicus, consul in 109, was exiled in 100. The story of C. Mucius Scaevola dates to the war between the Romans and the Etruscans around the end of the sixth century. Socrates died in prison in 399.
. Cato fought on Pompey's side in the Civil War, and committed suicide in 46. The dialogue of Plato was the
, which recounts the last hours of Socrates.
. Q. Metellus Scipio was another Pompeian commander, defeated at Thapsus in 46.
. In Letter 53 Seneca records that he was horribly seasick on the voyage to Baiae, a fashionable holiday resort. So, to avoid repeating the experience, he returns by an alternative route, a tunnel built in the time of Augustus to connect Naples and Puteoli.
. Now Taormina, on the eastern coast of Sicily.
. âLive unnoticed' was Epicurus' motto, representing his ideal of the quiet life away from the hurly-burly of public affairs. Metrodorus of Lampsacus was one of his most distinguished pupils.
. Nomentum is the modern Mentana, about 14 miles from Rome, where Seneca had a villa.
. Kinds of attendant spirit (like our âguardian angel'), who looked after the individual man's or woman's fortunes.
De Rerum Natura
. A Stoic philosopher and one of Seneca's teachers.
4.404, from a simile describing ants.
4A. 2. 4â6
. Egypt was part of the Persian Empire from 525 to 332
acceptance: of circumstances
accounting for time
accumulation of misfortunes
adultery with Julia Livilla,
Alexandria, Library of
ancestors' simplicity of life
Asia, province of
association of ideas
audit of life
Augustine of Hippo, St
autobiographical information in letters
Bacon, Sir Francis, Baron Verulam
Baiae, journey from
bias in self-appraisal
birth, noble or humble
Black Sea, Greek colonies
blood, sight of
Bocchus, king of Mauretania
books, ownership of
bridge of boats, Gaius'